Conservation and extractive development operations in Madagascar’s rural frontiers have brought together new types of alliances. These include alliances between governments, researchers, donors, NGOs and multinational mining companies to establish and legitimize new extractive operations or offsetting schemes in rural areas.
But these trends also have brought together new alliances involving members of local populations, activists and community advocates, social scientists, journalists, legal experts and others who confront and resist the violence and dispossession that can accompany these developments.
In southwestern Madagascar, we focus on controversy around agricultural ‘land grabbing’ and contested claims over land rights, benefits sharing and environmental damage around the Ranobe Mine, part of World Titanium Resources’ Toliara Sands mineral development.
In the south of Madagascar, we examine contested claims involving the Malagasy state, small-scale artisanal mining operations and a number of formal mining operations in the mineral-rich Mandrare Valley, and around the Rio Tinto (QMM) Ilmenite mine in Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, which has seen a succession of actions aimed at resisting evictions, seeking reparations, protesting environmental degradation, and most recently mobilizing against exclusion from ancestral forest lands in the Tsitongambarika Forest Complex (TGK) for corporate biodiversity offsetting.